Professor Adrian David Cheok is appointed Visiting Professor of University of Novi Sad-Serbia, on Technical faculty “Mihailo Pupin”, Serbia


What are replica watches?

Replica watches are imitations of well-known luxury watch brands. These timepieces closely resemble their high-end counterparts in design and functionality but are produced at a fraction of the price. They allow watch enthusiasts to own a piece that mimics the appearance and features of prestigious watch models.

Why are they popular?
Replica watches have gained popularity due to their affordability and accessibility. They provide an opportunity for individuals to wear stylish timepieces without paying a premium price. They also cater to those who admire the aesthetics of luxury watches but are unwilling or unable to invest in the original.

The legal aspect of replica watches
The legal status of replica watches is a complex matter. While owning a replica watch is generally legal, manufacturing and selling them can infringe on trademark and copyright laws. Some countries have stricter regulations on replicas, so it’s essential to be aware of the legalities in your region.

Quality of Replica Watches
When it comes to replica watches, quality varies significantly. Understanding the factors that influence the quality of these timepieces is crucial.

Materials and craftsmanship
High-quality replicas often use materials that closely resemble those in the original watches. These replicas undergo careful craftsmanship to replicate the intricate details and functions of luxury watches.

The difference between high-quality and low-quality replicas
Low-quality replicas may look appealing at first glance, but they tend to use cheaper materials and lack attention to detail. High-quality replicas, on the other hand, invest in precision, ensuring a closer resemblance to the original watch.

The cost factor
Replica watches are available in a wide price range. The cost of a replica watch depends on its quality, brand reputation, and the complexity of its design. It’s essential to determine your budget and what you’re willing to compromise on.

Adrian David Cheok in Channel News Asia Documentary “Becoming Human”

What is the best pill for losing belly fat?

Excess belly fat can be a stubborn and frustrating issue for many people. It not only affects our physical appearance but also our overall health. The desire to shed those extra pounds around the midsection has led to a multitude of products and solutions flooding the market. One common question that arises is, “What is the best pill for losing belly fat?” In this article, we will delve into the world of belly fat, the significance of a healthy lifestyle, and whether or not there is a magical pill that can help you achieve your goal visit

Understanding Belly Fat
Before we discuss pills, it’s essential to understand what belly fat is and why it accumulates in our bodies. Belly fat, also known as visceral fat, is found deep within the abdominal cavity. It wraps around vital organs, including the liver, pancreas, and intestines. While some belly fat is necessary for protecting these organs, excess visceral fat can lead to health issues such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.

The Importance of a Healthy Diet
To combat belly fat effectively, a healthy diet is key. Here are some dietary considerations:

Balanced Nutrition
Maintaining a balanced diet ensures you get all the essential nutrients your body needs. Incorporate plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains into your meals.

Portion Control
Watching your portion sizes can prevent overeating and calorie excess. Smaller, balanced meals are the way to go.


Adrian David Cheok is featured in the Channel News Asia documentary series “Becoming Human”, which explores love and artificial intelligence. It will be televised on 10th March 2019, Sunday, 9PM (GMT +8, Singapore, Jakarta and Delhi).

Although these documentaries show us how well robotic technology is advancing, they should also make us think that human health treatments must also be directed towards constant improvement. Nowadays, with the Covid-19 pandemic, it is always convenient to have reliable pages that provide us with quick pre-diagnoses that allow us to make timely decisions. For more information please visit

Full Documentary:

These Researchers Want to Send Smells Over the Internet – Electrical stimulation of cells in the nasal passages produces sweet fragrances and chemical odors

By Eliza Strickland, 17 Oct 2018


These Researchers Want to Send Smells Over the Internet – Electrical stimulation of cells in the nasal passages produces sweet fragrances and chemical odors

A volunteer tries out a "digital smell" apparatus
Electrical stimulation of neurons high up in the nasal passages can cause people to perceive aromas that aren’t really there. Photo: Imagineering Institute


Imagine a virtual reality movie about the Civil War where you can smell the smoke from the soldiers’ rifles. Or an online dating site where the profiles are scented with perfume or cologne. Or an augmented reality app that lets you point your phone at a restaurant menu and sample the aroma of each dish.

The researchers who are working on “digital smell” are still a very long way from such applications—in part because their technology’s form factor leaves something to be desired. Right now, catching a whiff of the future means sticking a cable up your nose, so electrodes can make contact with neurons deep in the nasal passages. But they’ve got some ideas for improvements.

This digital smell research is led by Kasun Karunanayaka, a senior research fellow at the Imagineering Institute in Malaysia. He started the project as a Ph.D. student with Adrian Cheok, now director of the institute and a professor at the City University of London, who’s on a quest to create a “multisensory Internet.” In one of Cheok’s earliest projects he sent hugs to chickens, and his students have also worked with digital kisses and electric taste.


Karunanayaka says most prior experiments with digital smell have involved chemical cartridges in devices that attach to computers or phones; sending a command to the device triggers the release of substances, which mix together to produce an odor.

Working in that chemical realm, Karunanayaka’s team is collaborating with a Japanese startup called Scentee that he says is developing “the world’s first smartphone gadget that can produce smell sensations.” They’re working together on a Scentee app that integrates with other apps to add smells to various smartphone functions. For example, the app could link to your morning alarm to get the day started with the smell of coffee, or could add fragrances to texts so that messages from different friends come with distinct aromas.

But Karunanayaka’s team wanted to find an alternative to chemical devices with cartridges that require refilling. They wanted to send smells with electricity alone.

For his experiments, he convinced 31 volunteers to let him stick a thin and flexible cable up their noses. The cable was tipped with both a tiny camera and silver electrodes at its tip. The camera helped researchers navigate the nasal passages, enabling them to bring the electrodes into contact with olfactory epithelium cells that lie about 7 centimeters above and behind the nostrils. These cells send information up the olfactory nerve to the brain.

Typically, these olfactory cells are stimulated by chemical compounds that bind to cell receptors. Instead, Karunanayaka’s team zapped them with an electric current.


The digital smell apparatus includes a controller and a cable with a camera and electrodes on the tip

The researchers had previously combed the scientific literature [PDF] for examples of electrical stimulation of nasal cells, and found some reports that the stimulation caused test subjects to perceive odors. So they decided to experiment with different parameters of stimulation, altering both the amount and frequency of the current, until they found the settings that most reliably produced smell sensations.

The subjects most often perceived odors they described as fragrant or chemical. Some people also reported smells that they described as fruity, sweet, toasted minty, or woody.

This experiment was a very basic proof-of-concept, Karunanayaka says. The next step is to determine whether certain stimulation parameters are reliably linked to certain smells. He must also investigate how much variability there is between subjects. “There may be differences due to age, gender, and human anatomy,” he says.

The biggest question, however, is whether he can find a way to produce these ghostly aromas without sticking a tube up people’s noses. The experiments were very uncomfortable for most of the volunteers, Karunanayaka admits: “A lot of people wanted to participate, but after one trial they left, because they couldn’t bear it.”

The digital smell experiment setup

Two possible solutions suggest themselves, Karunanayaka says: They could make the insert smaller, more flexible, and less unbearable. Or they could skip past the nose’s olfactory cells and directly stimulate the brain.

As a step toward that neurotech goal, the Imagineering Institute researchers are planning a brain-scanning collaboration with Thomas Hummel, a leading expert in smell disorders at the Technische Universität Dresden in Germany. In the planned experiment, volunteers will both smell real odiferous objects, such as a rose, and also receive nasal stimulation. All these sniffs will take place while the volunteers are getting their brains scanned by a noninvasive method such as fMRI.

“We’ll see which areas in the brain are activated in each condition, and then compare the two patterns of activity,” Karunanayaka says. “Are they activating the same areas of the brain?” If so, that brain region could become the target for future research. Maybe the researchers could use a headset that provides a noninvasive form of stimulation to trigger that brain region, thus producing smell sensations without the need for either a rose or a nose-cable.

Such tech could serve a restorative purpose: People with smell disorders could theoretically wear some headgear to regain some smell functions. And for people with intact sniffer systems, it could provide enhancements: For example, VR headset makers could build in the brain-stimulating tech to provide users with a more immersive and richer sensory experience.