情報経営イノベーション専門職大学（東京都墨田区、学長 中村伊知哉、http://www.i-u.ac.jp、以下「iU」）は、このほど海外大学との提携の第一段階として、米国カリフォルニア大学サン・ディエゴ校（The University of California, San Diego (UCSD)、米国イリノイ大学シカゴ校（The University of Illinois at Chicago Campus）、英国シェーフィールド大学（The University of Sheffield）、マレーシアラッフルズ大学(Raffles University Malaysia )、シンガポール国立大学（National University of Singapore）、英国ニコラ・テスラ大学院大学 (Nikola Tesla Graduate School)、アフリカアクレ連邦技術大学（The Federal University of Technology、Akure、 Ondo State、 Nigeria: FUTA）の7校との包括的提携に合意しました。
Professional University of Information and Management for Innovation (Sumida-ku, Tokyo, President Ichiya Nakamura, http://www.iu.ac.jp, “iU”) announces that since opening the University on April 1st 2020, it already has reached a comprehensive partnership agreement with global seven prominent schools such as The University of California, San Diego (UCSD), The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), The University of Sheffield, Raffles University Malaysia, National University of Singapore, Nikola Tesla Graduate School in UK, and the Federal University of Technology, Africa (Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria: FUTA). Many more international collaborations will follow.
iU will continue to actively collaborate with major universities in Japan and overseas, aiming to realize the “World University Concept”, a world university as an intellectual hub for the IT and business world centered around iU. While at the same time providing students the best opportunities to finance their careers so they can get the best student loan refinance opportunities.
Specifically, in addition to the exchange of students and faculty members and the implementation of joint research, the objectives are as follows:
(1) A “passport” system that allows classes at partner universities and is recognized as a graduation unit
(2) Joint development research of new industries and new products with joint use of strategic special zones
(3) Establishment of special visa zone for international students
(4) Other international collaborative research on eSports, super education, super sports, anime, otaku, etc.
(5) Entrepreneurship support and human resource development
This alliance with overseas universities is being promoted as part of the “World University Concept” advocated by iU. Through collaboration with each school, iU will be able to develop and hold international joint lectures, international joint experiments and implementation of various IT technologies, and international joint research through exchanges of students and teachers of each university. iU will work with universities and other well-known companies in Japan and overseas that support this activity.
Professor Adrian David Cheok, Chair Professor of University of London, has been invited to exhibit at the Ars Electronica Festival 2017. His work, Kissenger, has been selected by the Ars Electronica Festival committee to showcase for 5 days at one of the most prestigious media arts events to be held on 7-11 September 2017 in POSTCITY Linz, Austria.
Ars Electronica Festival is an international festival for Art, Technology & Society offering a distinct platform. Since 1979 it has provided an extraordinary meeting point. Artists, scientists, engineers, researchers and developers from all over the world are welcomed in Linz, to confront a specific, interdisciplinary theme in the context of exhibitions, conferences, workshops and interventions.
The theme of the 2017 Festival is AI –The Other I, ideas circulating here are innovative, radical, and eccentric in the best sense of that term, they influence our everyday, become integrated in our lifestyle and are our future way of life. One part of the exhibition will be dedicated to Artificial Intimacy, a special branch providing futuristic technical visions related to intimacy between humans and machines. Questions such as “Can a human love a robot?”, “Can a robot love a human?” will provoke your thoughts while exploring some of the latest technology in this area. https://www.aec.at/ai/en/artificial-intimacy/
The 5-day event is expected to welcome audiences of over 85,000. Ars Electronica Festival is supported by a prestigious list of 382 associates, including Intel, mobility partner Daimler, Animation Festival sponsor Maxon, scientific mentor MIT Media Lab and BioAustria. They make it possible for Ars Electronica to stage a festival characterized by huge dimensions and superb quality.
Date: August 7, 2017
Adrian David Cheok, Kasun Karunanayaka, Surina Hariri, Hanis Camelia, and Sharon Kalu Ufere Imagineering Institute, Iskandar Puteri, Malaysia & City, University of London,UK.
Phone: +607 509 6568
Fax: +607 509 6713
Here we are excited to introduce the world’s ﬁrst computer controlled digital device developed to stimulate olfactory receptor neurons with the aim of producing smell sensations purely using electrical pulses. Using this device, now we can easily stimulate the various areas of nasal cavity with different kinds of electric pulses. During the initial user experiments, some participants experienced smell sensations including ﬂoral, fruity, chemical, and woody. In addition, we have observed a dif- ference in the ability of smelling odorants before and after the electrical stimulation. These results suggest that this technology could be enhanced to artiﬁcially create and modify smell sensations. By conducting more experiments with human subjects, we are expecting to uncover the patterns of electrical stimulations, that can effectively generate, modify, and recall smell sensations. This invention can lead to internet and virtual reality digital smell.
To date, almost all smell regeneration methods used in both academia and industry are based on chemicals. These methods have several limitations such as being expensive for long term use, complex, need of routine maintenance, require reﬁlling, less controllability, and non-uniform distribution in the air. More importantly, these chemical based smells cannot be transmitted over the digital networks and regenerate remotely, as we do for the visual and auditory data. Therefore, discovering a method to produce smell sensations without us- ing chemical odorants is a necessity for digitizing the sense of smell. Our concept is illustrated in the Figure 1, which is electrically stimulating the olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) and study whether this approach can produce or modify smell sensations. During a medical experiment in 1973, electrical stimulation of olfactory receptors reported some smell sensations including almond, bitter almond, and vanilla . However, three other similar experiments that used electrical stimulation failed to reproduce any smell sensations [2, 3, 4]. Therefore, ﬁnding a proper method to electrically reproduce smell sensations was still undiscovered.
Our approach is different from the previous research mentioned above. Our main objective is to develop a controllable and repeatable digital technology, a device that connects to computers and be easily able to programmed and controlled. Also this device needs to generate electric pulses of different frequencies, cur- rents, pulse widths and stimulation times. To provide more stimulation possibilities, we wanted this device to be capable of stimulating diverse sites at the ventral surface of the inferior, middle, and superior nasal concha. Fig. 2 shows the computer controlled digital device we have developed to stimulate olfactory receptors. The amount of current output by the circuit can be controlled using one of the ﬁve push buttons shown in Figure 2 and the respective LED near the push button will lights up after the selection. The frequency of the stimulation pulses and stimulation time is controlled by the microcontroller program. It is possible to vary the stimulation frequency from 0Hz to 33kHz and pulse width using the programming. The pair of silver electrodes combined with the endoscopic camera was used to stimulate olfactory receptor neurons, and during the stimulation, one electrode is conﬁgured as the positive and the other electrode as the ground. Fig 3 and Fig 4 shows testing our device with human subjects.
During our ﬁrst user study, we have stimulated the 30 subjects using 1mA to 5mA range with frequencies 2Hz, 10Hz, 70Hz, and 180Hz. 1mA at 10Hz and 1mA at 70Hz were the stimulation parameters which gave most prominent results for the smell related responses. Electrical stimulation with 1mA and 70Hz induced the highest odor perceptions. 27% of the participants reported the perceived fragrant and chemical sensa- tions. Other smell sensations that are reported for include, 20% fruity, 20% sweet, 17% tosted and nutty, 10% minty, and 13% woody. Stimulation parameters 1mA/10Hz reported 17% fragrant, 27% sweet 27%, chemical 10%, woody 10%. Meanwhile, results for the 4mA/70Hz reported 82% for pain and 64% reported pressure sensations. We have also probed the effect of electrical stimulation on the nose after stimulation. Therefore, we asked participants to repeat the snifﬁng of known odorants immediately after stimulation and rate the intensity. Most of the participants reported higher intensity after stimulation. This showed that the electrical stimulation increased the intensity of the odorants in the nose.
We are planning to extend this user experiment with more number of participants. The effects of the differ- ent electrical stimulation parameters such as frequency, current, and stimulation period will be more closely studied in future. By analyzing the results, we plan to identify various stimulation patterns that can produce different smell sensations. If the electrical stimulation of olfactory receptors effectively produce smell sen- sations, it will revolutionize the ﬁeld of communication. Multisensory communication is currently limited to text, audio and video contents. Digitizing touch sense are already been achieved experimentally in the research level and will be embedded to daily communication near future. If the digitization of smell be- comes possible it will paved the way for sensing, communicating and reproducing ﬂavor sensations over the internet. This will create more applications in the ﬁelds such as human computer interaction, virtual reality, telepresence, and internet shopping.
1.Uziel, A.: Stimulation of human olfactory neuro-epithelium by long-term continuous electrical currents. Journal de physiologie 66(4) (1973) 409422
2.Weiss, T., Shushan, S., Ravia, A., Hahamy, A., Secundo, L., Weissbrod, A., Ben-Yakov, A., Holtzman, Y., Cohen- Atsmoni, S., Roth, Y., et al.: From nose to brain: Un-sensed electrical currents applied in the nose alter activity in deep brain structures. Cerebral Cortex (2016)
3.Straschill, M., Stahl, H., Gorkisch, K.: Effects of electrical stimulation of the human olfactory mucosa.Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 46(5-6) (1984) 286289
4.Ishimaru, T., Shimada, T., Sakumoto, M., Miwa, T., Kimura, Y., Furukawa, M.: Olfactory evoked potential produced by electrical stimulation of the human olfactory mucosa. Chemical senses 22(1) (1997) 7781